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Der Effekt von Psychotherapie auf das Gehirn

Der Effekt von Psychotherapie auf das Gehirn
Dr. Susanne Igler
   
Pressestelle

Philipps-Universität Marburg
Frontallappen des Gehirns als zentrale Netzwerkstruktur für kognitive Verhaltenstherapie
In Deutschland erkranken rund ein Drittel der Menschen mindestens einmal im Leben an einer behandlungsbedürftigen psychischen Erkrankung. Psychotherapie ist neben der Pharmakotherapie eine effektive und weit verbreitet eingesetzte Methode zur Behandlung dieser Erkrankungen. Die Panikstörung tritt bei rund 3-5% auf und ist gekennzeichnet durch plötzlich einsetzende panische Angst, Herzrasen, Schwitzen und dem Gedanken, sterben zu müssen oder in Ohnmacht zu fallen. 

Eine innovative Studie zum Einfluss von Psychotherapie auf Hirnprozesse bei Patienten mit Panikstörung wurde unter Leitung von Professor Dr. Tilo Kircher und Dr. Benjamin Straube federführend in der Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie der Philipps-Universität Marburg überwacht und ausgewertet. Sie erschien unter dem Titel: „Effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy on neural correlates of fear conditioning in panic disorder“am 1. Januar 2013 in der Zeitschrift „Biological Psychiatry“. Es handelt sich um die weltweit größte Studie zum Effekt von Psychotherapie auf das Gehirn, gemessen mittels funktioneller Magnetresonanztomographie (fMRT). Die vom BMBF geförderte Arbeit ist Teil einer großen, deutschlandweit durchgeführten Untersuchung. Bisher war ungeklärt, wie sich Psychotherapie auf das Gehirn von Patienten mit Panikstörung auswirkt. 

Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie zeigen die besondere Rolle des linken inferior frontalen Kortex bei der Furchtkonditionierung bei Patienten mit Panikstörung. Patienten zeigen eine Hyperaktivierung dieser Region vor Therapie im Vergleich zu Gesunden, die sich nach der Teilnahme an der kognitiven Verhaltenstherapie (KVT) auf das Normal-Niveau reduziert (Kircher et al., 2013). Weiterhin konnte gezeigt werden, dass bei Patienten der linke inferior frontale Gyrus eine erhöhte Verknüpfung (Konnektivität) zu Regionen der Furchtverarbeitung (u.a., Amygdala, anterior zinguläre Kortex, Insula) aufweist, was auf einen erhöhten Zusammenhang „kognitiver“ und „emotionaler“ Prozesse bei Patienten mit Panikstörung im Vergleich zu Gesunden hinweist. 

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